The Importance of a Pathology Second Opinion in Breast Cancer

Treatment decisions for breast cancer and their likely success are critically dependent on the analysis of the pathologist, summarized in the pathology diagnosis. As a colleague once put it:

“The diagnosis is like an architect’s drawing; if it is faulty, the house will collapse”.

Unfortunately, inadvertent errors in interpretation, either for the actual diagnosis of carcinoma, or in evaluating size, stage and margins, are commonplace. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Cancer Society (ACS) strongly recommend a pathology review of the slides, particularly for duct carcinoma in situ and other non-invasive lesions, for which the error rate on review may be as high as 25%. A second opinion may make the difference between a benign hyperplasia vs. an in situ carcinoma, the need for re-excision, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Second opinions can also help by confirming a diagnosis and providing reassurance that the patient is making a reasonable choice.

For a pathology second opinion to be of maximal value, it must be based on direct re-examination of the pathology slides used for the original diagnosis. In the course of making a therapeutic decision for their breast cancer far too many women receive second opinions merely based on review of the written reports. With many new breast cancers of minute size or entirely non-invasive, the issue of a direct review of the diagnostic materials becomes even more critical.

Breast Pathology Photomicrograph by Michael Lagios, MD
The goal of the Breast Cancer Consultation Service is a thorough review of the original diagnostic materials, not just existing written documents, and to provide the patient with unbiased information with which she can make an educated choice of therapy.

Dr. Michael D. Lagios has directed pathology second opinion services in San Francisco for over 30 years. As an internationally recognized breast pathologist and expert on duct carcinoma in situ, Dr. Lagios provides the second opinion service and personally discusses the findings with you.

To request a review of pathology materials for a second opinion or for clarification, please visit our "Referral Process" page.